INDIAN CLASSICAL DANCES
The most popular of the classical dance of India is the Bharat Natyam which developed in South India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The thematic and musical contents of this dance were evolved by the musicians namely Ponniah Pillai and brothers of the Tanjore Court in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Famous Exponents : Bala Saraswathi, Shanta Rao, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Yamini Krishnamurthy. Kamala, Vaijantimala, Sonal Man Singh, Samyukta Panigrahi, Rukmini Devi.
Originating in Kerala, Kathakali is the most refined, the most scientific and elaborately defined dance. It is regarded as the ballet of the east. It is very exciting art form demanding not only complete control of practically every fibre of the artist’s body, but also intense sensitivity of emotion.
Kathakali’s popularity is largely due to poet Vathathol Narayan Menon.
Famous Exponents : Kunju Kurup, Ragini Devi, Shanta Rao, Koppan Nair, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Kanak Pele, Rita Ganguly, Krishnan Nair, Gopinathan, Karunakaran Nair.
The popular dance form of North India, mainly in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, Kathak narrates stories from epics. Later, mime and gesture were added to the recitation of Katha – story. The Radha – Krishna legend is the central theme. The kathak or story – teller of yore was a versatile actor – musician – dancer, who addressed himself directly to his audience.
Famous Exponents : Sitara Devi, Birju Maharaj, Gopi Krishna, Binda Din Maharaj. Damyanti Joshi, Kalka din, Aachan Maharaj. Uma Sharma.
It is the classical dance of Orissa. It was evolved in the famous temple – Venkateshwara in Bhubaneshwar, the Jagannath Temple in Puri and the Konark Sun Temple. The 12th century poetic work Gita Govinda of Jayadeva dominates the poetical and musical content of this dance style.
Its modern revival is credited to Kalichandra Kalicharan Patnaik. Samyukta Panigrahi had popularised the dance through her performances.
Famous Exponents : Mohan Mahapatra, Kelucharan Mahapatra, Mayadhar Pant, Madhvi Mudgal, Pankaj Charan Das, Hare Krishna Behra, Myrta Bravie of Argentina, Sharon Lowen of the United States.
It is the classical dance of Manipur. At first the Manipur followed the Shaivite faith enacting dance – drama on Lord Shiva and his consort Parvati. Lal Haraoba is the oldest style of the traditional dance of Manipur. There are three main Rasaleelas in the dance – Maha Rasa, Vasanta Rasa and Kunja Rasa.
With the advent of Vaishnavism during the 15th and 16th centuries, Krishna and Radha became the principal divinities of Manipuri dance.
Famous Exponents : Charu Mathur, Sadhna Bose, Guru Bipin Sinha, Jhaveri Sisters, T. Nadia Singh.
The Kuchipudi dance came into existence in the 17th century through the Bhakti cult in the small village of Kuchelapuram in Andhra Pradesh. It is the corresponding style of the Bhagavata Mela Nataka of Tamil Nadu. Except that the emphasis is on animation, the grammar is derived from the ‘Natyashastras’ and in all other aspects it is akin to Bharat Natyam. Tirtha Narayan and Siddendra Yogi evolved this style.
The credit goes to Lakshmi Narayan Shastri for having brought renown to this dance during the 20th century.
Famous Exponents : Yamini Krishnamurthy, Swapnasundari, Shobha Naidu Raja and Radha Reddy. Vempati Stayam, Vedanatam Stayam.
Assam : Baisakhi Bihu; Khel Goapl; Rakhal Leela; Tabal Chongbi; Canoe; Nongkrem, Maharas
Andhra Pradesh : Ghanta Mardala; Ghurayayyal Tholu, Bommalata, Veedhi Natakam. Burrakatha
Bihar : Jata Jatin; Chhau; Kathputll: Bakho; Jhijhiya; Samo – Chakwa; Karma; Natua, Gadur
Chhattisgarh : Panthi, Danda, Sarhul, Raut, Suaa, Karma
Goa : Dhakto, Shigmo, Talagadi, Tongamel. Mussal Khel, Corridinho
Gujarat : Dandiya Rasa; Rasa Leela; Garba Lasya Nritya; Tippant; Ghenaiya
Haryana : Jhumar; Rasa Leela; Phag Dance; Daph; Dhamal; Loor; Gugga; Khoria; Gagor
Himachal Pradesh : Mahasu; Thali; Nati; Jadda; Jaintia; Chharba
Jammu & Kashmir : Rouf; Hikat
Jharkhand : Karma, Jhumri, Jogida, Panwaria
Karnataka : Yakshagana; Huttari; Suggi Kunitha, Kola
Kerala : Koodiyattam; Kaliyattam; Krishnattam: Kaikottikalal; Mohinlyattam; Oottam Thulal; Sari; Tappatrikkali
Madhya Pradesh : Ghero
Maharashtra : Lezim; Dahikala; Lavanl; Tamasha; Dasavatar; Mauni
Manipur : Basant Rasa
Orissa : Bahaka Wata (Sanchar); Dandanata (Chadya); Jaddur; Ghumara; Chhau
Pondicherry : Poorakkali, Kolkalim, Mascarada
Punjab : Bhangra; Giddha, Jhumar, Ludi Sami
Rajasthan : Jhumar (Ghumar); Gangore; Ginad; Jhulan Leela; Gopika Leela: Khyal; Chakri; Susini; Terahataal
Tamil Nadu : Kolattam; Pinnal Kolattam; Kummi; Dummy horse dance; Karagam; Kavadi